Millennium Development Goals for India for Health
In the year 2000, 189 nations came together to consolidate in the fight against extreme poverty and other deprivations. This came to known as the eight Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by 2015 – signed under the United Nations Millennium Declaration. It constitutes of 8 goals and 18 targets that will judged by 48 indicators to measure progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. India is a signatory to the Millennium Declaration adopted at the United Nations General Assembly.
Post the completion of these goals the world will adopt a new set of transformative and universal sustainable development goals (SDGs). At this point in time, when we are nearing the next phase of global development, it is paramount to assess the achievements of the MDGs in India. India has remarkably achieved some of its targets before the deadline of 2015, still lies far behind on a substantial number, it will not be wrong to say that India’s progress has been inconsistent. For example, India has been able to successfully reduce poverty by half but it has not been to reach the same level of results where hunger is concerned. It is important to note here, that poverty and hunger are inter related therefore this issue becomes important from macro economics point of view as well. Having achieved the equality with respect to gender in primary school enrolment, India lags behind in overall number of enrolment and completion. India has made progress in providing clean drinking water at the same time the access to sanitation services is inadequate. The Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has kick started the Swacch Bharat Abhiyan in order to instigate a sense of sanitation in India cities and villages. He also urged the public schools to incorporate clean toilets for girls in their action plans.
Below is a list of all the eight goals:
- Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty
Target 1: In the time range from 1990 to 2015, halve the proportion of people whose income is less than $1.25 a day
Target 2: In the time range from 1990 to 2015, halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
- Achieve Universal Primary Education
Target 3: By the end of 2015, children – both boys and girls will be able to enrol tthemselves in a primary schooling course and complete it
- Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015
- Reduce Child Mortality
Target 5: In the time range from 1990 to 2015, reduce the under-five mortality rate by two thirds of the current status
- Improve Maternal Health
Target 6: In the time range from 1990 to 2015, reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters
- Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases
Target 7: Have completed by 2015 and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
Target 8: Have completed by 2015 and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
- Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development and triple bottom line into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources
Target 10:Reduce by fifty percent, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
Target 11: In effect by fifty percent, 2020 a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers
- Develop a Global Partnership for Development
Target 12: Incorporate a rule-based, non-discriminatory trading and financial system
Target 13: Address the special needs of the Least Developed Countries
Target 14: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing states
Target 15: Deal with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
Target 16: In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth
Target 17: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries
Target 18: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies
India’s Status on Goals regarding Health as until 2015
- India met only four of ten health targets under the Millenium Development Goals.
- India has reduced its infant mortality between 2000 and 2013, it still contributes for the most infant deaths globally – non communicable diseases, communicable diseases and injuries are the major cause (that order of effect)