[Short Notes] NCERT Class VI – Fibre to Fabrics – Chapter 3
Read complete book (must) at NCERT Class VI – Science- Fibre to Fabrics – Chapter 2
Fabric is made up of yarns arranged together.
The yarn is made up of thin strands tied together.
Thin strands of thread are made up of still thinner strands called Fibres.
Natural Fibres : Fibres which are obtained from plants and animals.
E.g. Cotton, Jute are obtained from plants. Wool & silk fibres are obtained from animals.
Wool is obtained from fleece of sheep or goat. It is alaso obtained from hair of rabbits, Yak & camels.
Silk fibre is drawn from cocoon of silkworm.
Synthetic Fibres : Fibres which are made up of chemical substances not obtained from plants and animal sources.
For many years only natural fibres were available. In the last 100 years man has been able to make synthetic fibres.
E.g : Polyester , Nylon, Acrylic
Lets discuss about plant Fibres
Used in oil wicks, filling mattresses, quilts & pillows.
Cotton wool is grown in the fields.
Usually grown in the places having black soil & warm climate.
Fruits of cotton plant i.e. cotton bolls are about the size of a lemon.
After maturing, the seeds burst open & the seeds covered with cotton fibres can be seen. It looks like field covered with snow.
Ginning of Cotton
Fibres are separated from the seeds by combing. This process is called ginning of cotton. Earlier ginning was done by hands. Now-a-days machines are also used.
It is obtained mainly from stem of Jute plant.
Cultivated during the rainy season. Jute is mainly grown in West Bengal , Bihar & Assam in India. Normally harvested when it is at flowering stage. The stems of harvested plants are immersed in water for a few days. Stems rot and fibres are separated by hands.
Spinning Cotton Yarn
Process of making yarns from fibres is called Spinning.
Fibres from mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. This method brings the fibres together to form a yarn.
Hand operated devices like Takli & Charkha are used for spinning. Use of Charkha was popularised by Mahatma Gandhi during Independence movement.
Spinning of yarns is done on a large scale with the help of spinning machines.
Process : Yarn to Fabric
Two main processes by which fabrics are made from yarns are weaving & Knitting.
The process of arranging two sets of yarns together to make a fabric is called Weaving.
Weaving of fabric is done in either hand-operated or power-operated looms.
A single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric. A single yarn gets pulled out continuously as the fabric gets unravelled.
Socks & many other items are made up of knitted fabrics.
Knitted is also done by either hands or machines.
History of Clothing material
In ancient times people used barks and leaves of trees or animal skins and furs to cover themselves.
After people began to settle in agricultural communities, they learnt to weave twigs and grass into mats and baskets.
Vines, animal fleece or hair were twisted together into long strands. These were woven into fabrics.
The early Indians wore fabrics made out of cotton that grew in the regions near the River Ganga.
Flax , a plant also give natural fibres. In ancient Egypt, cotton as well as flax were cultivated near the river Nile & were used for making fabrics.
Stitching was not known in earlier days. People draped the fabrics around different parts of their body in many different ways.
People started stitching fabrics to make clothes, with the invention of sewing needle.
Questions: Which fibre is made up of outer covering of coconut? What are these fibres normally used for?
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