Objectives of Constitution of India
The constitution of India was adopted on 26th November 1949 and came into effect on 26th January 1950. It lays down the framework for the governance of our nation. Our constitution is both robust and flexible at the same time. It gives India a constitutional supremacy i.e. Parliament cannot override the constitution.
The preamble defines the core values which form the foundation of the constitution and the objectives it aims to achieve. In layman’s terms the constitution of India provides the nation the conscience and prudence of an honest and unbiased statesman. The objectives of the constitution of India are as follows –
Sovereignty – A sovereign country means a nation which is politically free. We are free to make our own decisions and no other nation can meddle in our internal affairs. The constitution makes it a duty and an obligation for the government to defend sovereignty from any kind of threat. Though our constitution does not specify where the sovereign authority lies, it can be safely said that the sovereign authority lies with the people of our country.
Equality – The main concern of the founding fathers while drafting the constitution of India was Inequality (political, financial, social etc.) A nation which does not endeavor to achieve equality is bound to be unstable and even disintegrate. Every citizen of our country has equality of opportunity and status. Every citizen is equal before law and has every right to indulge in self-development.
Socialism – India is a nation where there is extreme inequality, be it social, economic or political. These inequalities have been ingrained in the fabric of our society. In order to counter it and to make an attempt to restore parity in our society our constitution has deliberately imposed a socialist pattern of society in our country. The aim is to prevent the concentration of wealth and power in a few hands. A holistic and comprehensive development of all communities is the objective.
Secularism – In order to ensure a harmonious and peaceful existence secularism is essential in a country which is home to almost every religion in the world. There is complete freedom to practice any religion and any discrimination based on religion is prohibited. Minorities are allowed to practice and preserve their culture and are also allowed to administer their educational institutions.
Democracy – India is a democracy which essentially means that the people of the country elect their government at every level. The government is accountable and answerable to the people of the country. Elections are held periodically and this ensures that ultimate power lies with the people. All citizens can exercise adult franchise and vote for their desired candidates. Democracy ensures fair governance of the country and also a peaceful resolution in case people don’t agree with the policies of the government. All these things emphasize the importance of promoting democracy as a political culture and a constitutional objective.
Justice – In order to bring stability to day to day life of citizens a strong judicial system which treats every citizen of the country with equality is indispensable. This objective aims at delivering swift justice to the people who have been exploited in any way. This objective goes hand in hand with other objectives and is also a vital in implementation of other objectives.
Liberty – Liberty provides the Indian population a freedom to act. There is no restriction on thoughts, expression and the action related to that thought. Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith & worship are ensured to the citizens of India through fundamental rights. All these activities have to be exercised while staying within constitutional limits.
Fraternity – It is to ensure that evils such as Regionalism, Communalism, Casteism, Untouchability and religious discrimination are not used to divide the nation. A nurturing integration of the masses is crucial to keep a pluralist society such as ours together.
Republic – India practices a republic form of government in which the head of state is an elected individual and not a monarch. The head is elected by the people and for a fixed tenure. Every citizen of the country is eligible to become the head of the country.
It is because of the honest pursuit of these objectives that a diverse nation such as ours has managed to thrive as a democracy.