Indus Valley Civilization
What it is and where it is located?
The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity.
The Indus River is a major river in Asia which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through western Tibet and Northern India.Around 2600 BCE, The Civilization was built along with Indus river and it was the world’s earliest major urban settlements of an ancient Egypt, Crete and Mesopotamia.
- History of Indus Valley Civilization
- The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization during the period of 3300–1300 BCE and the mature period 2600–1900 BCE (Today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India).
- The three of the early civilization of the world includes the Mesopotamia and the Ancient Egypt which is widespread. The basins of the Indus river which is known as one of the major rivers of Asia and Ghaggar-Hakra River once coursed through the eastern Pakistan and northwest India.
- Having said that, The Indus Civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization. It had over five million population and the ancient people had developed the new techniques in handicraft, baked brick houses, water supply systems and elaborate drainage systems. In 1920s, The first of its sites to be excavated After Harappa and that was the Punjab province of British India(Now is Pakistan.
- In 1861, The Mohenjo-Daro, was the culmination of work beginning with the Archaeological Survey of India and excavation of Harappan sites has been running since 1920 and precious breakthroughs occurring in 1999.
- Sometimes, The Harappan civilization known as Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. Earlier and later on the Harappan Civilization used to known as the Early and Late Harappan.
- Area wise, The Indus Valley civilization starts from the Balochistan (Pakistan) to Gujarat (Republic of India). The first city to be discovered by excavation was Harappa and that is why this civilization is also known as ‘Harappan Civilization’.
- Harappa people were good builders and skillful designers. They had 2 or more stories building at the same time. The building bathrooms were attached to the rooms of the Harappa people. The drainage system was very unique and flowed along side every street. At regular intervals for easy cleaning and inspection, The Removable bricks were placed. The harappans used to play dice games.
However, The situations were very different in South Kathiawar.
DECLINATION OF INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
- The declination of the Indus Valley Civilization started by 1800 BCE. Some cities were gradually abandoned and writing started to disappear. Along with this, The connection with the Near East was interrupted. The reason of this declination was not clear but it was believed that Saraswati River is drying up and which had begun around 1900 BCE.
- In the mean time of 1500 BCE, A large group of nomadic cattle-herders (The Aryans) transferred to the region from central Asia. These people crossed the Hindu kush mountains and came into the Indus Valley Civilization. In this way, The Indus Valley Civilization came to an end.
- The Aryans gradually settled down and took up agriculture. Gradually, The languages brought by the Aryans gained the gained supremacy over the local languages and later on in the Indian subcontinent, The Indo-European languages introduced. In India, Still today some pre Aryan customs survived with their tradition, Hindu gods and hence the Indus valley civilization kept alive throughout the centuries.