What is Green revolution ?
During the 1960s and 1970s, The Increase in the production of agricultural production (cereals such as wheat, rice etc) because of the research, Development and new agriculture technology with better seeds.
In 1963, The American agronomist Dr. Norman E Borlaug known as the Father of the Green Revolution, introduced the wheat. But in India, Dr. M.S. Swaminathan is known as the “Father of the Green Revolution in India”.
Brief background on Green revolution in India
- The main objectives for the Green revolution in India is nothing but to continue the expansion of Farming areas, Using the new technologies and improved version of seeds and to harvest the land or crops 2 times a year that makes the increased in production.
- To improve the food quality-supplies and shortage In Developing countries, The Scientists has developed High Yield Variety – HYV seeds. These seeds also called as “Miracle seeds”.
- Due these High Yield Variety – HYV seeds or Miracle seeds, One can produce ten times more crops than the regular seeds at a time on the particular land.
- New agriculture technology had been introduced in 1960s phase to improve the chronic food defects and this led to increase in food production especially Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh in India. Meanwhile this period of time the chemical fertilizers and pesticides use increased and this led to negative effects on soil and the land, Which is known as “Land degradation”.
- During the green revolution, There are various parameters which developed countries has adopted and that leads to both profit-loss measures like to use of high yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds or Miracle seeds, Use of advanced sprinklers for irrigation, Use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers, Improved the infrastructure specially in Rural areas, Use of insecticides, Improved and expansion of the irrigation infrastructure, etc.
Obstacles during Green revolution in India
- The first and foremost need for the agricultural revolution is Finance/Loan to farmers. Now a days, It is easy to get a loan for a land for the agricultural purposes and the interest rates are quite impressive offered to farmers for farming purpose. But still there are few areas or cities where it is tough to get a loan and farmers ended up having a big debt on them.
- India needs an education in the field of agriculture that it is underrated subject. This leads to the lack of productivity and insufficiency to grow the crops and farming it in a proper way. Increased population and lack of finance make people poor and less productive.
- Farmers can not afford the new technologies and hence they use traditional methods to grow the crops. Moreover, Increased population and less crops affects on the Indian economy and food supplies to people. That is why government has taken an initiatives to encourage farmers to improve the productions and hence India does not have to be dependent on food imports from different countries.
- During the 1940s and 1970s, The problems such as malnutrition and starvation occurred due to shortage of food and farmers didn’t get the proper labour allowance and India’s population didn’t get enough food to feed for their families.
- The second most important obstacles that affected on the Green revolution of India was the quality and quantity of Irrigation supplies. In 1950s, Only 17% areas of India was well irrigated and the majority of Indian states dependent on the rainfall and hence the agricultural low production happened. –àGovernment is spending much money to improve the irrigation infrastructure and each agriculture part of land should get enough water to produce the quality and quantity of production to improve the Indian economy as well as the malnutrition factors.
- Green revolution was possible only due to the Finance, Fertilized land and enough water supplies. Today in India, Almost 50% of Indian populations are employed in the field of agricultural activities that leads the nation to have the better economy and healthy nation. But still Green revolution in India does not have 100 percent success ratio.
When the Green revolution was not successful during the year 2002, There were 1000 rural farmers committed suicide reported from all over the 12 districts of Maharashtra, India. The major count that had been noted during the year 1987 was almost 10,000 and this shows that the Green revolution in India was not that much successful. Hence with the increasing population of India, The developing countries must give their 100 percent to the agricultural activity to increase the food production and to get enough nutrients from the crops which should not be expensive at all.
Important points to be noted
- During the 10 years of Green revolution in India, The crop areas under the Magical seeds or High Yield Variety – HYV seeds grew from the 7% to 22% of the total cultivated area. Moreover the wheat crop area contains 70%, Rice crop area contains 35%, Millet and corn areas contain 20% that was used the Magical seeds or High Yield Variety – HYV seeds.
- Almost 50% of India’s population is in the agriculture farming employed. That makes the Indian economy to have biggest impact on India.
- India has shown inspiration to other countries that anyone can become from starving nation to the exporters of Food. That is pride for an India.
- During the political party Indian National congress position of Indira Gandhi during the year 1917 to 1984 made the Green revolution gradually successful in the field of Agriculture.
- During the Green revolution, India paid back all the debts-loans whatever it had taken from the world bank and this shows the improved economy of an India.